By D. H. Holding and G. P. Meredith (Auth.)

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The use of floats and belts in swimming practice is an example of this partial guidance. Forced-response. Another method, the most direct, is to control a pattern of movement by actively transporting the limb or the whole body of the subject; it appears, for instance, that the Balinese use this method in passing on the movements of their dance gestures and other ritual activities (Bateson and Mead, 1942). Dual control devices may take this form, although these are usually employed more for reasons of safety than of training.

For example, Karlin and Mortimer (1963) fed three kinds of artificial knowledge of resuhs back to subjects carrying out a kind of tracking. In this task a target blip on an oscilloscope face moved backwards and forwards unless the operator corrected its position by turning a control knob, his aim being to keep the target stationary on an illuminated centre line. Verbal cues, or scores, were more effective both in training and on a subsequent test than were visual or auditory cues. A control group which received no supplementary cues performed worst.

Verbal guidance. The giving of verbal instructions is another way of making sure that the learner does not have to use trial-and-error methods. As Annett (1959) has pointed out, we may often regard guidance techniques as giving "knowledge before" a response, rather than "knowledge after" in the form of feedback. Not all verbal methods can be considered guidance techniques, of course, and the use of words in training raises a number of other issues which are best dealt with in a later chapter. ANIMAL WORK The problem of guidance was first raised by Thorndike (1898), working with cats.

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