By Harald H. Sitte, Michael Freissmuth
This e-book is a consultant survey of the present prestige of the constitution, functionality, legislation and molecular pharmacology of Neurotransmitter Transporters. It offers an summary of insights generated some time past 5 years. the amount serves as an invaluable compendium of present ideas and an inspiring place to begin. it's a resource for college students attracted to this rising box in addition to for skilled scientists searching for an replace.
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Extra info for Neurotransmitter Transporters (Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology) (Volume 175)
After a stimulus-evoked response, the presynaptic neuron releases neurotransmitter (NT) into the synaptic cleft, activating preand postsynaptic ligand-gated channels or secondary messenger cascades (Fig. 1A and B). Chemical transmission is attenuated by NT degradation, diffusion, and clearance (Fig. 1C). The majority of transmitter molecules are sequestered in the presynaptic neuron via NT transporters (Axelrod and Kopin 1969; Graefe et al. 1978; Iversen et al. 1967). For example, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) removes 90% of released NE in peripheral noradrenergic neurons (Blakely 2001), and genetic NET ablation induces a signiﬁcant increase in extracellular NE longevity (Moron et al.
NET and DAT demonstrate 80% amino acid conservation, and NET and SERT demonstrate 60% amino acid conservation (Blakely et al. 1991). In order to study ionic dependence, radiometric substrate accumulation is traditionally monitored in media in which Na+ and Cl− are replaced: Na+ is typically replaced with N-methyl-d-glucamine (NMDG+ ) or Li+ at equivalent osmolarity; however, these counter ions do not support substrate accumulation. A similar approach was employed to evaluate Cl− -dependent substrate accumulation.
1 Neurotransmitter Transporters Conduct Transmitters Across Membranes . 2 Methods to Study Transporter Function . . . . . . . . . . 1 Radiometric Assay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Electrophysiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Amperometry and Cyclic Voltammetry . . . . . . . . . . 4 Quantitative Fluorescence Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . 5 Confocal Microscopy and Two-Photon Excitation .