By David Loshin

A dialogue of high-performance computing, unique to an viewers of computing device pros and engineers who've a uncomplicated figuring out of desktops and wish to examine on the high-performance point

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If a subsequent reference is an address that maps to the same DRAM page, the value can be delivered more quickly, 42 Chapter 3. High Performance on a Chip since the DRAM page has already been loaded into the local buffer. On the other hand, if the next referenced address does not fall within the same DRAM page, then the local buffer must be filled with the page that holds the new reference. This is called a DRAM page fault The time to fill the buffer with the page is incorporated into the time to fetch that referenced value from memory.

5. The Memory Bottleneck 37 Blinding Speed: Digital's Alpha In early 1992, Digital Equipment Corporation announced the 21064 Alpha microprocessor. This chip, which runs at a blinding 150 MHz, is the first of a family of superscalar, superpipelined high performance microprocessors. The Alpha is a multiple instruction issue processor, with four independent functional units: an integer unit, a fully pipelined floating point unit, a load/store unit, and a separate branch unit. The Alpha has a true 64-bit RISC architecture.

On the other hand, if the next referenced address does not fall within the same DRAM page, then the local buffer must be filled with the page that holds the new reference. This is called a DRAM page fault The time to fill the buffer with the page is incorporated into the time to fetch that referenced value from memory. This indicates that in a system using DRAM memory, referencing "near" addresses in sequence (that is, addresses that fall within the same DRAM page) will be faster than referencing "far" addresses (or addresses that map into different DRAM pages), since once the DRAM's local buffer is filled with a specific page, fetching values from that page may be done without reloading the page.

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