By Gerhard Sonnert

What determines winning careers within the box of technological know-how? What are the early symptoms of later mess ups. And particularly, how do ladies scientists' profession paths fluctuate from men's? whereas one could theorize approximately those questions, those that visit the difficulty of an in depth empirical research locate an more and more advanced photo.

Using the biggest database of its style (699 questionnaires and 2 hundred face-to-face conversations), the authors examine the occupation paths of recipients of prestigious postdoctoral fellowships--scientists, engineers, and mathematicians. They define a theoretical framework for knowing the explanations of gender disparities between scientists, try the speculation of a gender- particular "glass ceiling," and supply a wealth of pertinent statistical information.

Gender transformations in technological know-how Careers unearths that, as institutional legislation replaced, styles of discrimination and exclusion develop into extra sophisticated. regardless of the decline of inflexible gender-role socialization, many social practices persist that lead, on general and sometimes in counterintuitive methods, to the buildup of dangers for ladies scientists. This booklet is directed to students within the social sciences, aspiring and working towards scientists, and directors drawn to fairness matters.

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Gender is seen to pervade its institutional and even cognitive aspects. The institutions of science are considered deeply shaped by the fact that men have created them and predominated in them. And on the epistemological level, gender is said to be one of the factors that leaves its mark in the very construction of scientific knowledge; hence, there are male and female ways of knowing. A science controlled by women might construct knowledge in different ways, embodying a different epistemology.

We have already mentioned the help given in the design and testing of our questionnaires. We would like to thank J. Scott Long for his helpful comments on an earlier draft of our manuscript. Judith R. Blau, the editor of the Rose Book Series, and the other individuals involved in the Rose review process also have our gratitude. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, and the Ford Foundation. Of course, in no case did the advice or the grants imply an endorsement of our results.

It focuses on formal and informal exclusions of women scientists. According to this model, women as a group receive fewer chances and opportunities in their careers; and for this reason they collectively have worse career outcomes. The emphasis is on structural obstacles-legal, political, and social-that exist (or existed earlier) within the social system of science. It is assumed that women's goals are similar to men's goals, but that barriers to advancement keep women from accomplishing these goals on par with men.

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