By Yannis Haralambous

This reference is an engaging and whole advisor to utilizing fonts and typography on the net and throughout a number of working structures and alertness software program. Fonts & Encodings indicates you ways to take complete good thing about the superb variety of typographic concepts to be had, with complicated fabric that covers every thing from designing glyphs to constructing software program that creates and strategies fonts.

The period of ASCII characters on eco-friendly monitors is gone, and leaders reminiscent of Apple, HP, IBM, Microsoft, and Oracle have followed the Unicode all over the world personality common. but, many software program functions and websites nonetheless use a number of criteria, together with PostScript, TrueType, TeX/Omega, SVG, Fontlab, FontForge, Metafont, Panose, and OpenType. This publication explores every one alternative extensive, and offers historical past at the back of the techniques that contain today's "digital area for writing": * half I introduces Unicode, with a short heritage of codes and encodings together with ASCII. know about the morass of the information that accompanies each one Unicode personality, and the way Unicode offers with normalization, the bidirectional set of rules, and the dealing with of East Asian characters.
* half II discusses font administration, together with set up, instruments for activation/deactivation, and font offerings for 3 varied structures: home windows, the Mac OS, and the X Window procedure (Unix).
* half III offers with the technical use of fonts in particular instances: the TeX typesetting method (and its successor, W, which the writer co-developed) and net pages.
* half IV describes tools for classifying fonts: Vox, Alessandrini, and Panose-1, that's utilized by home windows and the CSS average. know about current instruments for growing (or editing) fonts, together with FontLab and FontForge, and get to grips with OpenType houses and AAT fonts.
Nowhere else will you discover the precious technical info on fonts and typography that software program builders, net builders, and picture artists want to know to get typography and fonts to paintings adequately.

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If a subsequent reference is an address that maps to the same DRAM page, the value can be delivered more quickly, 42 Chapter 3. High Performance on a Chip since the DRAM page has already been loaded into the local buffer. On the other hand, if the next referenced address does not fall within the same DRAM page, then the local buffer must be filled with the page that holds the new reference. This is called a DRAM page fault The time to fill the buffer with the page is incorporated into the time to fetch that referenced value from memory.

5. The Memory Bottleneck 37 Blinding Speed: Digital's Alpha In early 1992, Digital Equipment Corporation announced the 21064 Alpha microprocessor. This chip, which runs at a blinding 150 MHz, is the first of a family of superscalar, superpipelined high performance microprocessors. The Alpha is a multiple instruction issue processor, with four independent functional units: an integer unit, a fully pipelined floating point unit, a load/store unit, and a separate branch unit. The Alpha has a true 64-bit RISC architecture.

On the other hand, if the next referenced address does not fall within the same DRAM page, then the local buffer must be filled with the page that holds the new reference. This is called a DRAM page fault The time to fill the buffer with the page is incorporated into the time to fetch that referenced value from memory. This indicates that in a system using DRAM memory, referencing "near" addresses in sequence (that is, addresses that fall within the same DRAM page) will be faster than referencing "far" addresses (or addresses that map into different DRAM pages), since once the DRAM's local buffer is filled with a specific page, fetching values from that page may be done without reloading the page.

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