By J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gasoriek, John Swaffield, Lynne Jack

Written for classes in Fluid Mechanics in Civil and Mechanical Engineering, this article covers the basic rules of fluid mechanics, in addition to professional issues in additional intensity. the basic fabric pertains to all engineering disciplines that require fluid mechanics.

As in past variations this booklet demonstrates the hyperlink among concept and perform with very good examples and machine courses. The courses aid scholars practice three kinds of calculations quite easy calculations, calculations designed to supply recommendations for regular nation process operation, and unsteady circulate simulations.

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Written for classes in Fluid Mechanics in Civil and Mechanical Engineering, this article covers the elemental rules of fluid mechanics, in addition to expert themes in additional intensity. the basic fabric pertains to all engineering disciplines that require fluid mechanics. As in prior versions this ebook demonstrates the hyperlink among concept and perform with first-class examples and computing device courses.

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**Example text**

For oils of the type used in oil hydraulic machinery, the increase in viscosity is of the order of 10 to 15 per cent for a pressure increase of 70 atm. Water, however, behaves rather differently from other fluids, since its viscosity only doubles for an increase in pressure from 1 to 1000 atm. 12 SURFACE TENSION Although all molecules are in constant motion, a molecule within the body of the liquid is, on average, attracted equally in all directions by the other molecules surrounding it, but, at the surface between liquid and air, or the interface between one substance and another, the upward and downward attractions are unbalanced, the surface molecules being pulled inward towards the bulk of the liquid.

Suppose that in time t a particle at E (Fig. 1) moves through a distance x. If E is a distance y from AD then, for small angles, Shear strain, φ = x͞y, Rate of shear strain = x͞yt = (x͞t)͞y = u͞y, where u = x͞t is the velocity of the particle at E. Assuming the experimental result that shear stress is proportional to shear strain, then τ = constant × u͞y. 1) The term u͞y is the change of velocity with y and may be written in the differential form du͞dy. The constant of proportionality is known as the dynamic viscosity µ of the fluid.

The analysis of the behaviour of fluids is based upon the fundamental laws of applied mechanics that relate to the conservation of mass–energy and the force– momentum equation, together with other concepts and equations with which the student who has already studied solid-body mechanics will be familiar. There are, however, two major aspects of fluid mechanics which differ from solid-body mechanics. The first is the nature and properties of the fluid itself, which are very different from those of a solid.