By Serge Haroche, Jean-Michel Raimond
The counter-intuitive facets of quantum physics were for lengthy illustrated through idea experiments, from Einstein's photon field to SchrГіdinger's cat. those experiments have now turn into genuine, with unmarried particles--electrons, atoms or photons--directly unveiling the unusual beneficial properties of the quantum. country superpositions, entanglement and complementarity outline a singular quantum good judgment that are harnessed for info processing, elevating nice hopes for functions. This ebook describes a category of such notion experiments made actual. Juggling with atoms and photons restricted in cavities, ions or chilly atoms in traps, is right here an incentive to shed a brand new mild at the uncomplicated thoughts of quantum physics. size techniques and decoherence on the quantum-classical boundary are highlighted. This quantity, which mixes thought and experiments, might be of curiosity to scholars in quantum physics, academics looking illustrations for his or her lectures and new challenge units, researchers in quantum optics and quantum details.
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Extra info for Exploring the Quantum: Atoms, Cavities, and Photons
It is when the set-up has been precisely deﬁned that the particle in the interferometer ‘decides’ to behave as an interfering wave or as a particle with a well-deﬁned trajectory. The qualitative notion of complementarity will take a more precise form when we link it to the concept of entanglement, which Bohr did not consider explicitly in his early interpretation of the quantum formalism. At the transition between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach emphasized that science must only describe directly measurable phenomena and avoid unnecessary theoretical considerations.
An incursion will ﬁnally be made into a novel and very active ﬁeld, the physics of Bose–Einstein condensates, to which some of the concepts of CQED can also be applied. This book is also intended to give the reader an opportunity to learn and reﬂect about the quantum. We will assume that (s)he is familiar with the basics of this physics, but might not have had the opportunity to think too much about all its conceptual aspects. The strange features of the quantum are often presented in negative terms (uncertainty relations, impossibility theorems such as the ‘no-cloning’ 22 Unveiling the quantum one, non-separability, non-locality and so on).
8) or among many momentum plane waves (eqn. 11). These superpositions thus describe diﬀerent ‘potentialities’ which depend upon the kind of measurement we will decide to perform (position or momentum). It is important to understand that these potential outcomes of R or P measurements have no physical reality before the coupling of A with the corresponding measuring apparatus. We come back to this point later when we have sharpened our deﬁnitions of reality and locality in physics. The probability amplitudes ψ(r) or ψ(p) deﬁne two equivalent tables of C-numbers, each of which containing all information needed to compute the statistics of the outcomes of a speciﬁc measurement on |ψ .