By Melia F.

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At low temperatures lead has a high specific heat, substantially greater than any commonly available material. ) diameter] is the preferred material for the low-temperature regenerator in multiple expansion Stirling, Vuilleumier, and Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. Nevertheless, the specific heat of lead is a strong function of temperature. It declines rapidly as the temperature decreases and is comparable with helium at about 9 K. Simultaneously with increase in specific heat the density of gases increases as the temperature decreases, whereas the density of most solids is unaffected by temperature change.

27 (after Daniels and du Pre, 1971) shows the specific heat of gaseous helium He (at a pressure of 4 atm), the metals copper, Cu, and lead, Pb, and the rare earth, europium sulfide, EuS, as a function of temperature. The specific heat of helium increases as the temperature decreases whereas those for the metals and the rare earth decrease. At a temperature of 20 K, the specific heat of helium is comparable with that of copper. At low temperatures lead has a high specific heat, substantially greater than any commonly available material.

The pressure drop across the regenerator would be zero. When used in Stirling engines where dead space is an important parameter, the ideal regenerator has zero void volume. The ideal regenerator is impossible. Achieving the constant inlet/ outlet temperature would require infinitely slow operation or the heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer area to be infinitely great and the heat capacity of the fluid and matrix to be zero and infinite, respectively. The absence of a pressure drop would require the flow to be frictionless.

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