By Günther Lamprecht

FORTRAN ist die im wissenschaftlichen Bereich am weitesten verbreitete Programmier sprache. Fur speedy alle Rechenanlagen und Mikroprozessoren ("personal computer") stehen FORTRAN Compiler zur Verfugung. Bedingt durch das grosse Spektrum von Rechenanlagen mit den vielfaltigen Bedurfnissen der verschiedensten Anwendungsgebiete wurden viele Erweiterungen des fruheren Sprach criteria FORTRAN IV vorgenommen. Damit gab es im Laufe der Zeit eine unuberseh naked Zahl von FO RTRAN-"Sprachdialekten," die den Programmaustausch erschwerten. Mit FORTRAN seventy seven wurde ein neuer Sprachstandard festgelegt, der viele der fruheren Er weiterungen einschliesst. Gleichzeitig wurde eine Untermenge (FORTRAN seventy seven Subset) definiert, die die eingeschrankten Moglichkeiten der Kleinrechner berucksichtigt. Das vorliegende Buch fuhrt in die Programmiersprache FORTRAN seventy seven an Hand von Bei spielen ein, wobei gleichzeitig auf Einschrankungen der Teilmenge FORTRAN seventy seven Subset eingegangen wird. Die Beispiele und Aufgaben sind so gewahlt, dass sie ohne allzu grosse Vorkenntnisse gelost werden konnen. Dabei lernt der Leser mit Ausnahme weniger An weisungen den gesamten Sprachumfang von FORTRAN seventy seven kennen. Bremen, im Januar 1987 Gunther Lamprecht v Inhaltsverzeichnis Einleitung ................................................ . Ein einfaches Beispiel ...................................... four 2 Bildung arithmetischer Ausdrucke ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine three Schleifensteuerung, logische Grossen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . sixteen . . . . four Polynomberechnung; Vektoren, Matrizen ......... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 27 . five Ausgabe auf dem Drucker oder dem Bildschirm ....... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 38 6 Eingabe von Daten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . fifty two . . . . . . . 7 Interne Darstellung von Zeichen, Initialisierung von Variablen. . . . . . . . .. . . 60 eight Unterprogrammtechnik: Funktionsunterprogramme . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . seventy one . nine Unterprogrammtechnik: Subroutinen, Vektoren und Matrizen als Parameter . .. seventy nine 10 Parameterubergabe durch den eOMMON-Bereich ..... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 89 eleven Der Datentyp eOMPLEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ninety five . . . . . . 12 Zugriff auf Dateien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ninety seven . . . . . . . Losungen zu den Beispielen und Aufgaben ........................... 107 Anhang A: Interne ZahlendarsteIlung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 134 . .

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Extra resources for Einführung in die Programmiersprache FORTRAN 77: Anleitung zum Selbststudium

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1m vollen Sprachumfang von Fortran 77 sind bis zu 7 Dimensionen zugelassen, im Subset nur 3. Beim spateren Aufruf der Matrix-Elemente sind die einzelnen Index-Werte durch Kommata getrennt aufzufUhren. Auch bei Matrizen gilt, daB die angegebenen Index-Werte nicht daraufhin Uberprlift werden, ob sie in den Grenzen liegen, die bei der Deklaration spezifiziert wurden. *)In Fortran IV und im Subset von Fortran 77 ist jeweils die untere Grenze auf I festgelegt und es ist nur die obere Grenze anzugeben.

Von diesem Teilbereich kann man Zeichen abrufen und auch umgekehrt Zeichen in einen Teilbereich hin Ubertragen. Zur Spezifikation des Teilbereichs wird die Anfangsposition PI und die Endposition P2 (von links gezahlt) durch einen Doppelpunkt getrennt in **) Klammern nach dem Namen der Variablen v angegeben. Dabei dUrfen PI und P2 ganzzahlige arithmetische AusdrUcke sein. B. B. B(9:IO) = '77' AnschlieBend steht in B die Zeichenfolge: B IF,o,R,T,R,A,N, ,7,71 Das Bilden von Teilbereichen ist auch bei Vektorkomponenten und Matrixelementen moglich: Zuerst ist das entsprechende Element anzugeben und dann wie oben beschrieben - der gewUnschte Bereich.

1st die Lange Iv der Variablen v graBer als die Feldweite w, so werden die w links stehenden Zeichen ausgegeben, die (lv-w) rechts stehenden Zeichen der Variablen v werden abgeschnitten. 1st die Lange Iv kleiner als die Feldweite w, werden Iv Zeichen rechts in dem Feld ausgegeben, links werden Leerzeichen eingefugt. 1 Welche Zeichen werden nach Durchlaufen des folgenden Pro grammausschnitts ausgegeben? CHARACTER ZElLE,Z*3,C*4 ZElLE - 'KOPFZElLE' WRITE (*,100) 'TlTEL: ',ZElLE 100 FORMAT (IX, 2A) READ (*,101) Z,C 101 FORMAT (A2,A6) WRITE (*,102) Z,C 102 FORMAT (IX,A6,A2) 1m Abschnitt 3 hatten wir auf Seite 17 dargestellt, wie man arithmetische Ausdrucke miteinander vergleichen kann.

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