By Kaspar Burger

Early adolescence care and schooling has develop into a subject matter of accelerating public curiosity in plenty of nations and between a number of foreign agencies and foundations. This booklet makes a speciality of key matters in early early life care and schooling, including pedagogical, historic, and sociological views to a physique of analysis in schooling that has overlooked very important inquiries to date. The reviews provided concentrate on results of early formative years care and schooling on kids, at the value of family members historical past for baby improvement, at the use of institutional companies between various households, at the background of such companies in France and within the u . s ., and at the means during which teenagers gather competences either in early youth care and schooling associations and in a relatives context.​

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13) A control (or comparison) group was given that either received no preschool education or had been assigned to another kind of program so that the effectiveness of different interventions could be compared. The present review does not aim to duplicate existing reviews like the ones by Anderson et al. (2003), Barnett (1995), Boocock (1995), and Currie (2001) and therefore largely omits the studies included in these thoroughly conducted previous reviews. The third stage in the review was to summarize the evidence of effectiveness.

It is therefore crucial to ask to what extent these programs can reduce disadvantage by providing socio-economically deprived children with a better start at school. This is particularly important since it is well known that low socioeconomic status can have a detrimental influence on the development of children (Barnett & Belfield, 2006). 52 2 III New contributions to early childhood care and education research Effects of socio-economic status on the development of children Socio-economic status refers to the relative position an individual, a family or a group holds within a societal hierarchy according to its access to or power over valued goods such as wealth or social recognition and privileges (McLoyd, 1998).

In the member countries of the European Union, for instance, only one in ten couples with young children prefers the traditional male as a breadwinner and female as a caregiver model of family organization although this model is still more widespread in practice (Jaumotte, 2003). 2 Immigration and fertility rates Two major demographic challenges further spur policymakers and educational authorities in economically more advanced countries to provide early childhood care and education services: first, large numbers of immigrant and second- 36 II Introduction language children among the population of primary school children; second, falling fertility rates and accompanying population decline.

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