By Alfred Schütz

Ivre de romans de chevalerie, Don Quichotte se rêve lui-même en chevalier errant. Il agit dans un monde entièrement imaginaire, littéralement enchanté. Si personne ne s'oppose à ses croyances, le "sous-univers" dans lequel il vit par rapport à los angeles réalité de sens commun peut cohabiter sans heurts avec d'autres "sous-univers". Tout est affaire, nous dit Schütz, de croyance subjective, entre raison, technology et rêve. los angeles vérité dépend de l. a. réalité dans laquelle chacun croit, nos choix et nos convictions sont avant tout des phénomènes sociaux, fondés sur l'interaction entre les individus. Et les sous-univers que l'on choisit en influencent parfois d'autres. Ce qui arrive à Sancho Pança, son écuyer, pourtant éminent représentant du "sens commun". Une fois entré dans l'univers pseudo-scientifique de son maître, il donne une interprétation absolument extravagante de l'une de leurs aventures. Mais pour Don Quichotte, l. a. description de son fidèle compagnon est totalement "en dehors de l’ordre de l. a. nature". Aussi, dès qu'une réalité peut être contredite, elle ne peut plus être acceptée comme vraie. Ce retour à los angeles réalité "de sens commun" devient pour notre chevalier errant un emprisonnement, une désillusion.
Alfred Schütz livre là une interprétation lumineuse des réalités multiples qui composent l'ordre social et défend un aspect de vue radical : l. a. réalité n'est que subjective ; l. a. frontière entre le réel et l'imaginaire relative.

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Extra resources for Don Quichotte et le problème de la réalité

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And pray, find me the Russian who does not care for fast driving? Inclined as he is to let himself go, to whirl his life away and send it to the devil, his soul cannot but love speed. For is there not a kind of lofty and magic melody in fast driving? You seem to feel some unknown power lifting you up and placing you upon its wing, and then you are flying yourself and everything is flying by: the mileposts fly, merchants fly by on the boxes of their carriages, forests fly by on both sides of the road in a dark succession of firs and pines together with the sound of hacking axes and the cries of crows; the entire highway is flying none knows whither away into the dissolving distance; and there is something frightening in this rapid shimmer amid which passing and vanishing things do not have time to have their outlines fixed and only the sky above with fleecy clouds and a prying moon appears motionless.

Stop, stop, you fool,' Chichikov was shouting at Selifan [which stresses the fact of this lyrical outburst's not being Chichikov's own meditation]. 'Wait till I give you a slap with my scabbard,' shouted a State Courier with yard long moustaches, . . " The remoteness of the poet from his country is transformed into the remoteness of Russia's future which Gogol somehow identifies with the future of his work, with the second part of Dead Souls, the book that everybody in Russia was expecting from him and that he was trying to make himself believe he would write.

At the barrier she embraced the pilgrim, broke into tears and made the sign of the cross over Gogol who responded effusively. At this moment papers were asked for: an official wanted to know who exactly was leaving. "This little old lady," cried Gogol, and rolled away in his carriage, leaving Madame Sheremetev in a very awkward position. To his mother he sent a special prayer to be read in church by the local priest. In this prayer he begged the Lord to save him from robbers in the East and to spare him seasickness during the crossing.

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