By Dante Cicchetti, Donald J. Cohen
Developmental Psychopathology, quantity three, possibility, sickness, and edition presents a lifestyles span developmental viewpoint on "high-risk" stipulations and psychological issues. additionally, it examines developmental pathways to resilient version within the face of adversity.
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The problem in designing the most effective interventions to improve social support and increase healthy functioning in troubled individuals may be even broader. Robinson and Garber (1995) noted that there is currently no coherent theory of how social support should guide intervention efforts. Absent a well-developed and empirically based theoretical portrayal of social support, interventions are often guided by a general expectation that greater social support, usually indexed by increased social ties, is a good thing and will have broadly positive benefits.
In another longitudinal study, Gazelle and Ladd (2003) found that the combination of anxious solitude (an index of individual vulnerability) and peer exclusion predicted levels of depressive symptoms in a sample of 388 children studied from kindergarten to fourth grade. There is evidence for the stress-buffering effects of positive peer relationships as well. In the prospective longitudinal study by Dodge, Pettit, Bates, and their colleagues, peer acceptance moderated the effects of low SES, high family stress, single-parent status, and violent marital conflict on the development of externalizing behavior in early grade school (Criss, Pettit, Bates, Dodge, & Lapp, 2002).
But in their efforts to be emotionally supportive, these network associates failed to challenge abusive practices and instead overlooked signs of parental dysfunction, minimized the seriousness of abuse, and offered reassurance about the mothers’ good intentions while providing noncritical emotional affirmation. In so doing, of course, they contributed 14 Social Support and Developmental Psychopathology little to curbing abusive practices or protecting the children, and were thus ineffective in preventing the death of these children.