By Stuart Warren

Teaches scholars to exploit the language of sythesis without delay (utilizing the grammar of synthon and disconnection) instead of translating it into that of natural chemistry.

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C. Further aza substitution ortho or para in the same ring deshields the nitrogen; the effect is moderate for a para-, and large for an ortho-nitrogen. The latter is probably a special ‘azo effect,’ since the nitrogens of a simple azo group absorb at still lower field (130 ppm, in ether). This deshielding effect can be seen in the chemical shifts of pyridazine, 1,2,3-triazine [particularly N(2)], 1,2,4-triazine [N(1) and N(2)] and cinnoline (Table 17). d. Hydrogen bonding to the nitrogen lone pair leads to an upfield shift, the extent of which depends on the proton-donor ability of the solvent, and the acceptor ability of the base: shifts of some 20 ppm are commonly found.

Saturated ethers are usually transparent down to 210 nm. Some of the useful applications of UV spectroscopy are listed below. a. UV spectroscopy has been much used in determining ionization constants for both proton addition and proton loss. Conversely, it is important that the pH of a solution is known when a UV spectrum of a potentially basic or acidic compound is obtained. b. UV spectroscopy has been particularly useful in studies of tautomeric compounds. 3)126>. c. 3). d. , between polycyclic quinolizinium ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

17 O NMR spectroscopy has been used to examine the relative back donation of various diazine N-oxides. The order of 17O chemical shifts in N-oxides is pyridazine (412 ppm) > pyrazine > pyridine (349 ppm) > pyrimidine (338 ppm), with the larger value corresponding to the greater double-bond character for the nitrogen-oxygen bond in the N-oxide group. This is in agreement with the 15N chemical shifts of the parent compounds as well as the differences in chemical shifts between the parent and the oxidized nitrogens.

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