By Gurin Patricia Lehman Jeffrey S. Lewis Earl Dey Eric L. Hurtado Sylvia Gurin Gerald

While complaints not easy its admissions rules made their means during the courts, the college of Michigan carried the torch for affirmative motion in greater education.In June 2003, the excellent courtroom vindicated UM's place on affirmative motion while it governed that race can be utilized as an element for universities of their admissions courses, hence confirming what the UM had argued all alongside: variety within the lecture room interprets to a important and wide-ranging social worth. With the golf green mild given to the legislation school's admissions rules, protecting variety validates the optimistic advantages received by means of scholars in a various academic setting.Written via admired college of Michigan school, protecting range is a well timed reaction to the court's ruling. supplying genuine history, old surroundings, and the psychosocial implications of affirmative motion, the publication illuminates the numerous advantages of a various greater academic environment -- together with getting ready scholars to be complete individuals in a pluralistic democracy -- and demonstrates why affirmative motion is important to accomplish that diversity.Defending range is an important contribution to the continued dialogue on affirmative motion in better schooling. probably extra very important, it's a invaluable checklist of the background, occasions, arguments, and concerns surrounding the unique complaints and the superb Court's next ruling, and is helping reclaim the controversy from these forces against affirmative action.Patricia Gurin is Professor Emerita, division of Psychology, collage of Michigan. Jeffrey S. Lehman, former Dean of the college of Michigan legislation institution, is President of Cornell collage. Earl Lewis is Dean of Rackham Graduate tuition, college of Michigan.

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Additional resources for Defending Diversity: Affirmative Action at the University of Michigan

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2 5 This understanding gained more traction the next year, when President Lyndon Johnson, in the graduation speech at Howard University, made clear that passage of the Civil Rights Act alone would not ameliorate the lingering effects of discrimination and prej udice. Executive Orders on Affirmative Action, 1 94 1 -6 1 Executive Order Effect 8802 Established Fair Employment President (Party) Year Roosevelt (Democrat) 1 94 1 Roosevelt (Democrat) 1 943 Truman (Democrat) 1 948 Truman (Democrat) 1 95 1 Eisenhower (Republican) 1 953 Kennedy (Democrat) 1 96 1 Practices Commission 9346 Recreated Fair Employment 9980 Created Fair Employment Practices Commission Board within Civil Service Commission 1 0308 Created 1 1 -person Committee 1 0479 Created I S -person on Government Compliance President's Committee on Government Contracts 1 0 925 Created President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity Source: Adapted from John David Skrentry, versity of Chicago Press, 1 996), 1 1 3- 1 4 .

34 No doubt the shift from the rural South to the urban South and North, which began in the first decades of the twentieth century and accelerated after World War II, contributed to the patterns described above. In addition, migration in the second half of the W H Y H I S T O RY R EMA I N S A F A C T O R 43 twentieth century corresponded with other important structural changes that had profound effects on the opportunity structures for many. First, significant numbers of blacks entered industrial sector jobs.

The Ironies ofAffirmative Action (Chicago: Uni­ �E F E N D I N G 36 D I V E R S I TY You do not wipe away the scars of centuries by saying: "now, you are free to go where you want. Do as you desire, and choose the leaders you please. " You do not take a man who for years has been hobbled by chains, liberate him, bring him to the starting line of a race, saying, "you are free to compete with all the oth­ ers," and still justly believe you have been completely fair . . This is the next and more profound stage of the battle for civil rights.

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