By Guy J.-M. Le Moigne, Shawki M. Barghouti, Hervé L. Plusquellec, World Bank

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The third part focuses on environmental aspects with special reference to water quality and public health. It also presents a discussion on the need to express environmental and social aspects in monetary terms in the evaluation of dam projects. The seminar is a reflection of the continuation of the World Bank's increasing interest in and concern with environmental and safety-related aspects associated with the construction of dams. Page v CONTENTS Preface vii A Review of the Seminar ix Part I.

An important stimulus to dam construction has been the tremendous growth in domestic and industrial water supply throughout the world. A 100 years ago piped systematic water supply systems were rare even in big cities but now they are commonplace. The early years of this century saw the beginning of hydroelectric development in those countries that had the right combinations of topography, hydrology, and power demands. In many developed countries, hydro-power has already been fully exploited but a vast unexploited potential remains in Africa, South America, and in many parts of Asia.

A. Veltrop, President of the International Commission on Large Dams and Vice-President of Harza Engineering, noted that stress on the environment had increased significantly during the second half of the 20th century. Improvements in living standards and the rising expectations of a rapidly increasing population had necessitated the construction of additional dams for water supply, flood control, power generation and recreation. Although dam safety had always been fundamental to the dam engineering profession, he said, today's concerns about potential failure were increasingly important because of the concentrations of population in downstream areas.

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