By Christopher Read

This e-book indicates that the increase of the intelligentsia happened previous to is in general notion, and that via 1922, instead of 1932, the underlying ideas of the hot Soviet government's regulations in the direction of tradition had already emerged, "proto-Stalinism" being more and more very important. quite a few resources were used, together with Proletkul't, Moscow collage and the rabfaky and the works of varied members akin to Bagdanov, Lunacharsky, Andreev, Berdiaev and Chagall. Christopher learn has written "Religion, Revolution and the Russian Intelligentsia" and has produced a video "The Decline of Tsarism".

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When the painting was first shown it caused no little surprise. Repin had a reputation for being able to produce extremely vibrant, action-filled canvasses, such as The Zaporozhets Cossacks, but the painting of the State Council seemed vacuous and limp. Then it began to dawn on the critics that this was the genius of the painting, Repin had simply drawn what he had seen. It was, in its way a revolutionary painting. While, in the field of themes, Wanderers such as Repin could be thought of as mildly revolutionary, in aesthetics they were conservative, remaining resolutely realistic.

The debate showed also a kind of generation gap in that within the major groupings of liberalism and radicalism a positivist old guard, kd by Miliukov among liberals and Plekhanov and Lenin among the Marxists, much as they disliked each other, at least shared a hostility to all attempts to undermine wh at they saw as the heroic principles of scientific rationalism on which Russia's revolutionary tradition had been built since the 1860s. Both were contemptuous of the younger generation (the term being used here in the intellectual and not necessarily the physical sense) to the extent that Struve, not without justification, wrote a powerful article in which he denounced the 30 Culture and Power in Revolutionary Russia intelligentsia for its conservatism and lack of openness to new ideas.

45 There were seven other, smaHer societies of this kind in the city. 46 Eighteen to twenty-three year olds were the most prominent age group among the members, with very few over forty taking part. 47 Kleinbort's scattered evidence suggests the predominant taste among readers in these societies was for fiction rather than works of what he caHs a 'serious' kind. 'Even among metalworkers 80% of books issued were fiction. '48 Most surveys showed Tolstoy and Gorky to have been overwhelmingly the most popular with Turgenev, Chekhov, and Dostoevsky also frequently read.

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