By Jean-Fabrice Lebraty, Katia Lobre-Lebraty

Crowdsourcing is a comparatively fresh phenomenon that basically seemed in 2006, however it maintains to develop and diversify (crowdfunding, crowdcontrol, etc.). This booklet goals to study this idea and exhibit the way it results in the production of worth and new enterprise opportunities.
Chapter 1 is predicated on 4 examples: the online-banking area, an informative tv channel, the postal zone and the better schooling area. It indicates that during the present context, for an organization dealing with demanding situations, the group is still an untapped source. the following bankruptcy provides crowdsourcing as a brand new type of externalization and gives definitions of crowdsourcing. In bankruptcy three, the authors try and clarify how an organization can create worth through a crowdsourcing operation. to do that, authors use a version linking varieties of price, kinds of crowd, and the ability through which those crowds are accessed.
Chapter four examines intimately a variety of varieties that crowdsourcing might take, by way of proposing and discussing ten sorts of crowdsourcing operation. In bankruptcy five, the authors think and discover the ways that the darkish aspect of crowdsourcing should be manifested and bankruptcy 6 bargains a few perception into the way forward for crowdsourcing.

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The preponderant role assigned to diversity also raises an important question: what is the minimum number of people required for a group to be considered a crowd? J. Howe suggests the figure 5,000 [HOW 09, p. 282], but no scientific basis has been demonstrated. What has been shown is that within a crowd there are “quality circles” that lead to 90% of the crowd suggesting useless ideas, 9% interesting ideas, and 1% very interesting ideas, and that it is expected that one ε will strike on a brilliant idea.

Four factors are at work in this phenomenon: calculation power (computers, smartphone tablets, many other devices); digitized data and information; a universal network protocol (Internet); and, above all, individuals connected to each other. Anderson [AND 12] specifies that in these conditions, elements will circulate and be copied and recopied, as well as sometimes changed. These modifications, made possible by the characteristics of the technology, will enrich the initial element with diverse perspectives and experiences, thus turning it into a new and unique element.

3. Crowds and experts It would be wrong to believe that in crowdsourcing there is nothing but the crowd. Alongside the crowd, there are the experts. com/. A New Form of Externalization 27 by the organization, who carries out the crowdsourcing operation. Expertise is a social status granted by an entourage. In our case, the designated expert may be, for example, an independent team responsible for verifying the feasibility of a solution proposed by an individual in the crowd as part of a crowdsourcing operation.

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