By Ralph Segalman

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Unemployment and unemployability among youth in all of the developed nations has been tied to growing problems of drug addiction, alcoholism and crime. The growth of female-headed dependent families with children has been tied to problems of nonformation of legitimated families among young people who are unable to support themselves and, nevertheless, produce children whom they cannot adequately socialise. Many of them have been described as a 'no-hope' generation, who, according to Van der Vat (1980), 'lack the incentive to seek work because they came from families' which have accustomed them to the acceptability of unemployment.

The existence of numbers of private commercial employment agencies and their expansive growth in most developed nations is, we believe, an indication of the failure of the welfare state's employment placement system. The success of the commercial agencies can be credited to their greater structural and functional elasticity, the built-in motivation of their staffs to perform competitively, and the necessity to operate productively, without which the agency would die. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT WORSE The scene among unemployed and unemployable youth is even more serious than among the adult unemployed because it is damaging to society, not only in the here and now, but in the future.

Similar problems have been experienced in other European countries, and, generally, these derive from a basic structural incentive defect, namely, a low level of efficiency and staff interest which extends from the balance sheets to the bed sheets. Having a governmental intermediary somehow removes the invisible controls without which the programme meets no one's standards. 5 Housing in the Welfare State One of the myths of social work which has been widely adopted by proponents of the welfare state is that the provision of attractive and safe housing will positively affect the behaviour of the poor, and encourage them to adopt a productive, clean, healthful lifestyle, bringing peace and good citizenship to the community.

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