By Anthony Williams
The way to create multitrheating code in c++ .
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Additional resources for C++ Concurrency in Action
Empty(); } }; #1 We can't use the member initializer list to copy the stack as we must lock the source object first #2 Check for empty before trying to pop a value #3 Allocate the return value before modifying the stack with pop() As the discussion of top() and pop() shows, problematic race conditions in interfaces essentially arise due to locking at too small a granularity: the protection doesn't cover the entirety of the desired operation. Problems with mutexes can also arise due to locking at too large a granularity: the extreme situation is a single global mutex which protects all shared data.
Though this directly addresses this issue, it makes for more cumbersome programming, as now we need to be able to catch an exception, even if the call to empty() returned false. This essentially makes the call to empty() completely redundant. If you look closely at the snippet above, there's also potential for another race condition, but this time between the call to top() (#2) and the call to pop() (#3). Consider two threads running the above snippet of code, and both referencing the same stack object, s.
At least in that case we could lock the mutexes simultaneously, but that's not always possible. 1, then one possibility for protecting the list is to have a mutex per node. Then, in order to access the list, threads must acquire a lock on every node they are interested in. For a thread to delete an item it must then acquire the lock on three nodes: the node being deleted, and the nodes either side, since they are all being modified in some way. Likewise, to traverse the list a thread must keep hold of the lock on the current node whilst it acquires the lock on the next one in the sequence, in order to ensure that the next pointer is not modified in the mean time.