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13. , 1976, p. 4. (32) Ralph Nader, P e t e r J. ). Whistle Blowing; The Report on the Conference on Professional Responsibility. New York: Grossman Publishers, 1972, pp. 46-52. (33) Niki Scott, "Belle Bides Time with Nasty Boss," Chicago Sun-Times, (May 1, 1977), p. 4. (34) "Action Line," Chicago Tribune, (April 20, 1976), section 2, p. 1. , 1976, p. 10. (36) ,,f Sore Throat A t t a c k s , " Time, (August 18, 1975), p. 54. 1 (37) J a m e s P e a r r e , "ΑΜΑ Sweats Out Case of Tribune, (August 17, 1975), p.

In organizations, privilege is generally relative to possible privation - t h e c a r r o t may be more evident, but the stick is more fundamental. The centrality of occupation to 40 BUREAUCRATIC OPPOSITION self-concept, the general scarcity of employment opportunities, and t h e negative sanctions t h a t an administration can m e t e out (for example, geographical transfers, assignments to odious or meaningless tasks, or simply s t r i c t enforcement of rules t h a t would make work uncomfortable or intolerable) all make the comparison between opposition t o a tyrant and opposition to an organization plausible.

Habits of obedience may also be related to the establishment of a sense of loyalty to a formal group. " Slogans such as "my country right or wrong" and "America - love it or leave it" are examples of a t t e m p t s to fabricate loyalty. Advice to employees is redolent with such sentiments: a newspaper column reads, "Boss Bugs You? " The development of a sense of obligation to a hierarchy tends to color one's evaluation of it. Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that if a person has a positive a t t i t u d e toward X (for example, t h e firm) and X indicates that Y (for example, a policy) is good, then the person will tend to have a positive a t t i t u d e toward Y.

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