By M.K.H. Siddiqui

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D. Concn. 3N, clay/acid 1:0·2. E. Concn. 3N, clay/acid 1:0·4. F. Concn. 7N, clay/acid 1:0-9. activation avoided. The solubility of clay minerals in acid varies with the nature of the acid, acid concentration, acid/clay ratio, temperature and duration of treatment. Various clay mineral groups have also quite different solubilities, and there is great variation in solubility characteristics of individuals in the same group. Thus a magnesiumrich montmorillonite is generally much more soluble than one that is rich in aluminium, with an iron-rich member lying somewhere in 36 Bleaching Earths between.

For clay minerals examination, particles less than 2 μ are separated by sedimentation and are dispersed in double distilled water to make a suspension of about 0-01 per cent clay. It is very important that the clay is thoroughly dispersed and no fractionation takes place. A droplet of 28 Bleaching Earths the suspension is placed on a thin film of collodion or Formvar (polyvinyl formaldehyde) supported on a 200-mesh copper disc, and is subsequently dried in a vacuum desiccator. Another general consideration is to maintain a high vacuum in the microscope column to present a clear path for the electrons.

2. 3. 4. Filtration. Centrifugation. Steam refining. Adsorption or clay treatment. Filtration only removes the bulk of the insoluble matter from the oil. Finely-divided carbonaceous particles pass through the pores of the filter medium and the water and volatile organic impurities still remain in the oil. In centrifugation, the removal of suspended impurities is maximized, yet the soluble impurities, water and volatile compounds are not eliminated and may cause subsequent deterioration of the oil.

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