By Carol Off
Award-winning writer and broadcaster Carol Off finds the attention-grabbing -- and infrequently scary -- tales in the back of our hope for all issues chocolate.
Whether it's a part of a Hallowe'en haul, the contents of a heart-shaped field or simply a sweet bar stashed in a table drawer, chocolate is synonymous with pleasures either basic and extravagant. yet in the back of the candy picture is a protracted heritage of exploitation. within the eighteenth century the eu aristocracy went wild for the Aztec delicacy. In later years, colonial territories have been ravaged and slaves imported in droves as local populations died out below the stress of feeding the world's urge for food for chocolate.
Carol Off lines the origins of the cocoa craze and follows chocolate's evolution less than such overseers as Hershey, Cadbury and Mars. In Côte d'Ivoire, the West African state that produces approximately half the world's cocoa beans, she follows a dismal and hazardous seam of greed. opposed to a backdrop of civil warfare and corruption, desperately terrible farmers interact in appalling practices resembling the indentured servitude of younger boys -- young children who don't even be aware of what chocolate tastes like.
Off exhibits that, with the complicity of Western governments and firms, unethical practices proceed to thrive. sour Chocolate is a social historical past, a passionate investigative account and an eye-opening exposé of the workings of a multi-billion greenback that has institutionalized distress because it served our pleasures.
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Extra resources for Bitter Chocolate: Investigating the Dark Side of the World's Most Seductive Sweet
A. 2000 Vortex ring oscillations, the development of turbulence in vortex rings and generation of sound. Phys. Uspekhi 43, 663–690. MACKAY, R. S. 1986 Stability of equilibria of Hamiltonian system. In Nonlinear Phenomena and Chaos (ed. S. Sarkar), pp. 254–270. Adam Hilger, Bristol. MAHALOV, A. 1993 The instability of rotating fluid columns subjected to a weak external Coriolis force. Phys. Fluids A 5, 891–900. MOORE, D. W. & SAFFMAN, P. G. 1971 Structure of a line vortex in an imposed strain. In Aircraft Wake Turbulence and its Detection (ed.
Higgins, M. S. Chong and A. Ooi For the case of axisymmetric strain, and Burgers (1948) obtained the equilibrium vorticity distribution in cylindrical coordinates Here the circulation is constant and is the kine– matic viscosity. This represents a balance between viscous diffusion and vorticity intensification due to the stretching strain field. A Reynolds number based on the circulation is defined as The study of the dynamics of non-symmetric stretched vortices was initiated by Robinson & Saffman (1984).
By scaling we claim: In a suitable frame, A vortex bursts into an eddy. 1. Introduction In turbulent flows, vorticity filaments have been individuated in real experiments (Cadot, Douady & Couder 1995) or numerical simulations (Vincent & Meneguzzi 1991). Their evolution clearly depends on the varying background stretching field generated by surrounding vortices. In this context, numerical studies have been performed where the stretching field acting on a straight vortex is non-uniform, time-periodic or generated by an array of vortex rings (see for instance Verzicco, Jiménez & 19 K.