By John M. Ziman

Professor Ziman offers a coherent account of the various views on technological know-how and know-how which are usually studied less than quite a few disciplinary heads comparable to philosophy of technology, sociology of technology, and technological know-how coverage. it really is meant for college students embarking on classes in those matters and assumes no precise wisdom of any technological know-how. it really is written in an instantaneous and straightforward kind, and technical language is seldom brought. it is going to attract scholars in quite a lot of medical disciplines and enhances Professor Ziman's prior books.
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Thus, for example, there is immense satisfaction in explaining the chemical phenomenology of Mendeleev's Law by physical representation of an atom as a charged nucleus surrounded by electrons. 102 on Sat May 04 20:07:26 WEST 2013. ii Cause and effect 25 the explanandum it is supposed to explain, even if the latter is itself a general classification principle or scientific law. g. 'atoms', 'electrons', 'genes') since they must be constructed of less particular and more abstract components than can be grasped by direct observation.

The elaborate social and intellectual machinery for thus dividing the labour of research will be studied in later chapters, but the very notion of a scientific problem really requires detailed philosophical explication. Although it must be capable of relatively distinct formulation, it cannot be like a crossword puzzle or mathematical exercise, known to have a unique solution. It arises out of the research process itself, as it goes on, and is both novel and open-ended, so that there is no general way of tackling it except by a sophisticated version of'trial and error'.

Holton. Thematic Origins of Modem Thought. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1973 (pp. 47-68) Some of the features of serendipitous discovery are indicated by B. Barber & R. C. Fox, "The Case of the Floppy-Eared Rabbits: An Instance of Serendipity Gained and Serendipity Lost', reprinted in The Sociology of Science, ed. B. Barber & W. Hirsch, pp. 525-38. New York: The Free Press, 1962 Details of various accounts of a famous serendipitous discovery are compared instructively by S. W. Woolgar, 'Writing an Intellectual History of Scientific Development: The Use of Discovery Accounts', reprinted in Sociology of Scientific Knowledge: A Source Book, ed.

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