By Morton E. Gurtin (Eds.)

This ebook provides an creation to the classical theories of continuum mechanics; specifically, to the theories of excellent, compressible, and viscous fluids, and to the linear and nonlinear theories of elasticity. those theories are very important, not just simply because they're appropriate to a majority of the issues in continuum mechanics bobbing up in perform, yet simply because they shape an effective base upon which you'll quite simply build extra complicated theories of fabric habit. additional, even if consciousness is proscribed to the classical theories, the remedy is sleek with an important emphasis on foundations and constitution

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19) we readily obtain, as we know, ψα (∂t f + ξ · ∂x f ) dξ = 0. 20) This is a system of equations for the moments of f which is in general not closed. 23) ∂t Mξ ξi = 0, 1 3 1 ρRT + ρ|v|2 + div 2 2 2 Mξ |ξ |2 = 0. 21), specialized to the case of a Maxwellian distribution. This is of crucial importance if we want to write 30 C. 24) in closed form. To do so we have to express Mξ ξi and Mξ |ξ |2 in terms of the fields (ρ, v, T ). 26) p = ρRT . 27) is the perfect gas law. 27) has the meaning of a pressure.

2) the solutions of the Boltzmann equation will converge to a local Maxwellian distribution whose parameters satisfy the incompressible Euler equations. This assertion can actually be proved rigorously [71,9]. 28 C. Cercignani For α = 2 something special happens. 13) (where r = p/ρ and ν = µ/ρ is the kinematic viscosity) are also invariant under the same scaling. It is therefore of great interest to understand whether the Boltzmann dynamics “chooses” in this limit the Euler or the Navier–Stokes evolution.

14), we have: h+ = Kw M− h− Kw M− + − 1. 16) This relation is exact. We can now proceed to neglecting terms of order higher than first in the perturbation parameters. , T0 and 0) and obtain a slightly different operator K0 . Thus we obtain the operator K, which we used before, by letting K0 M− h− /M+ = Kh− . 15): h0 = Kw M− Kw M− Kw Mw− −1= − . M+ M+ Mw+ Since Mw and M differ by terms of first order, we can replace Kw by K0 because their difference is also of first order and would produce a term of second order in the expression of h0 .

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