By Angus Konstam

The 50 years ahead of the yankee Civil conflict observed a growth within the development of coastal forts within the us of a. those stone and brick forts stretched from New England to the Florida Keys, and so far as the Mississippi River. initially of the battle a few have been positioned within the secessionist states, and plenty of fell into accomplice arms. even supposing a handful of key websites remained in Union arms through the conflict, the rest needed to be received again via bombardment or attack. This ebook examines the layout, development and operational background of these fortifications, similar to fortress Sumter, castle Morgan and citadel Pulaski, which performed a vital half during the Civil struggle.

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Even if the cost kel;av;CCS would be avoided (Fig. e. when xCCS ¼ 0, then the fulfillment of the relation kel;av;oxy kel;av will only be possible after the eCO2 price of the purchase of CO2 emission allowances of eCO2 ! 219 PLN/MgCO2 is exceeded (Fig. 7), which seems quite improbable to occur in the near future. The cost kel;av;oxy ¼ kel;av ¼ 430 PLN/MWh would in this case be higher than the cost of generating electricity in nuclear power stations, as it is equal to around 420 PLN/MWh [2]. In such circumstances, the design and building of power units with CCS installations would not serve any economic purpose.

The annual production Eel,A in the formulae above needs to be expressed in relation to the electrical capacity of the power station Nel, its internal load εel and annual operating time tA Eel;A ¼ Nel ð1 À eel ÞtA ð2:38Þ and the annual use of the chemical energy of the fuel with the equation Ech;A ¼ Nel tA gel ð2:39Þ where ηel denotes the efficiency of electricity production in the power station. 12) is limited to the trivial question of its differentiation with respect to specific boundaries and the subsequent analysis of the resulting NPV functions of independent variables: ael ; acoal ; aCO2 ; aCO ; aSO2 ; aNOX ; adust ; bCO2 .

Denoting NPV, IRR and DPBP measures in the continuous time as well as methodology of development of “continuous” mathematical models using these measures offer the application of differential calculus in analysis of the variation in their value. In general, continuous models form a foundation of a detailed technical and economic analysis of various investment processes in any branch of economy. This feature gives them an incomparable advantage over discrete notations. Moreover, they offer insight into a range of additional, important information about the characteristics of considered economical processes and phenomena.

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