By Mendel Cooper

This is often the entire reference at the Borne back shell (bash). quantity 1Volume 2 includes all appendices.

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If filename does not already exist, it is created. [i]<>filename opens file filename for reading and writing, and assigns file descriptor i to it. If filename does not exist, it is created. process substitution. (command)> <(command) In a different context, the "<" and ">" characters act as string comparison operators. In yet another context, the "<" and ">" characters act as integer comparison operators. See also Example 16-9. << redirection used in a here document. <<< redirection used in a here string.

5] cat $filename1 $filename2 | grep $search_word For an interesting note on the complexity of using UNIX pipes, see the UNIX FAQ, Part 3. The output of a command or commands may be piped to a script. sh : Changes input to uppercase. tr 'a-z' 'A-Z' # Letter ranges must be quoted #+ to prevent filename generation from single-letter filenames. exit 0 Now, let us pipe the output of ls -l to this script. TXT 725 APR 20 20:56 DATA-FILE The stdout of each process in a pipe must be read as the stdin of the next.

Blank lines have no effect on the action of a script, and are therefore useful for visually separating functional sections. $IFS, the special variable separating fields of input to certain commands. It defaults to whitespace. Definition: A field is a discrete chunk of data expressed as a string of consecutive characters. Separating each field from adjacent fields is either whitespace or some other designated character (often determined by the $IFS). In some contexts, a field may be called a record.

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