By Arthur Israel Vogel

The best books there's instructing useful natural chemistry. The 3rd version of this publication (first released in 1956) is admittedly of far better use to the pastime chemist, because it doesn't utilize any hideously dear glassware/apparatus or unique reagents or catalysts.

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Extra resources for A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition

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IOO;;B IOO;:B i oo 7. A Composition Fig. /, 4, 3. position of the vapour first distilling is Vl ; it is richer in A, the lower boiling point component, than was the original solution. As the boiling proceeds, the residue becomes increasingly richer in B, the higher boiling point component; consequently the boiling point will rise, say, to t2 and the composition of the residue will gradually change to L2, whilst that of the distillate (vapour) will change from Fx to F2. Thus from a solution of initial concentration/^, a distillate is obtained of composition approximating to (V l + F2)/2 and a residue of composition L2.

8, I ; these lead to a critical solution temperature of 65-9° and a critical concentration of 34-0 per cent, of phenol. Fig. I, 8, 1 enables one to predict the effect of bringing together phenol and water in any given quantities at any temperature. If the resulting mixture is represented by a point in the area enclosed by the solubility curve, separation into two layers will take place, whereas if the total composition of the mixture and the temperature is expressed by a point lying outside the solubility curve a clear homogeneous solution will result.

P. 131° 1,14. System in which the two components form a compound possessing a congruent melting point. This system, which occurs less frequently than that of Section 1,12, is of considerable interest. The equilibrium diagram depicted in Fig. , capable of existing as a solid compound in equilibrium with a liquid of the same composition. Point A is the melting point of benzophenone (47 -7°) and B that of diphenylamine (52-8°). When diphenylamine is added to benzophenone, the freezing point is lowered along the curve AC.

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