By Bernard D'Espagnat

Qu'est-ce que l. a. réalité? 
Le physicien Bernard d'Espagnat aborde ici l. a. query du "réel", défendant l'idée qu'il serait intellectuellement discutable de prétendre los angeles traiter sans tenir compte des leçons de los angeles body moderne. Il apporte l'éclairage de los angeles philosophie classique, et celui de los angeles technology contemporaine. Ce livre est donc une brillante initiation aux problématiques de los angeles body, technological know-how qui entre toutes a connu récemment les plus grands bouleversements.

"Alors que j'étais étudiant à l'École centrale, un ami m'offrit À l. a. recherche du réel, qui  venait de paraître. Je le dévorais aussitôt en annotant chacune de ses pages." Etienne Klein.

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Pushed to its extreme, the Copenhagen interpretation leads to a "shut up and calculate" attitude; this is of course harmless if one is merely concerned with applications, but it leads to severe epistemological problems. As Bohm and Hileynote in their book [20], the Copenhagen interpretation gives an algorithm for computing probabilities of experimental results, but it gives no account of the individual quantum processes. To put it in more philosophical terms, it may be said that quantum mechanics is primarily directed towards epistemology.

2. 1 Maxwell's Principle and the Lagrange Form We begin by expressing Newton's second law in terms of vector fields, and briefly discussing the form of the fundamental force fields of mechanics. We then state the Maxwell principle, and justify it on a few examples. ) in his study of celestial mechanics Memoire de la premiere Classe de I'Institut pour 1808. Lagrange's original form actually corresponds to the case of a scalar potential (the equations of electromagnetism were written down by Maxwell only in 1876), while we consider here the more general case of an arbitrary gauge.

24) relating the frequency of a photon to its energy, and the energy of a material particle to its mass m = m o / \ / l — (v/c)2. De Broglie equated the right hand sides of these two equations to obtain the formula v=— (1-25) giving the frequency of the internal vibration in terms of Planck's constant and of the relativistic energy of the particle. 24) is about light quanta, and the second about the energy of matter! ) One year later, de Broglie took one step further and postulated the existence of a wave associated with the particle, and whose wavelength was given by the simple formula A=-.

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