By Elizabeth Endicott

An illustrated historical past of the pastoral nomadic lifestyle in Mongolia, this publication examines the various demanding situations that Mongolian herders proceed to stand within the fight over normal assets within the post-socialist unfastened industry period.

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Because he was a descendant of Chinggis Khan in the twenty-fifth generation, Altan Khan 52 A History of Land Use in Mongolia already had a firm basis for claiming the right to rule the Mongolian people. In addition, Tibetan Buddhism’s historical connection to the thirteenth-century court of the Yuan rulers made it a compelling component in any attempt to revitalize Mongolian unity and imperial ambitions. Tibetan lamas had constituted an important presence at the court of Khubilai Khan and his successors in Yuan Dynasty times.

Nonemergency otor may be motivated by the desire to fatten up livestock on distant pastures that offer better feed than the locally available pastures. Emergency otor, however, is a response to drought or other factors that pose immediate threats to herds. Going on otor requires good organization and the willingness to split the ayil into two groups—one that stays with the remaining, nonmigrating herd animals, and one that goes on the long-distance migration with the designated animals. But going on otor is the exception, not the rule.

As a result, a renewed reliance upon the now less plentiful camels occurred. ”18 Certainly, the steep decline in Bactrian (two-hump) camel numbers is alarming: in 1954, camel numbers peaked at 896,500, but by 2010, only 270,000 remained in Mongolia. The zud of winter and spring 2009–2010 led to the death of more than 10,000 camels. With camels giving birth to a single offspring only once every two years, the current rate of reduction has understandably led to greater efforts in Mongolia to conserve the remaining population.

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